考研英语:完形填空易考五大逻辑关系 更新日期:2017-02-24 编辑:爱语吧

从完型填空的命题形式来看,每个空都不是孤立存在的,而是处在一整篇文章的大背景之中的。从这个角度来说,完型文章实际上是由已知信息和未知信息构成。通过相关已知信息提供的线索进行分析总结,结合选项定位出答案,这就是完型解题的基本方法。而相关已知信息一般在上下句之中,而上下句之间往往有明显的逻辑关系,因此熟练把握这种逻辑关系就成为解题的关键所在。

对立关系  

包括让步和转折关系,常见的标志词和短语有:but,however,yet,on the contrary,by contrast,unfortunately,although,even though,nevertheless,in spite of,regardless of,anyhow,instead of,rather than,not…but等。

2000年完型第41题:
He must store a large quantity of grain ___ consuming all his grain immediately.
[A]other than  [B]as well as  [C]instead of  [D]more than
答案:C
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“储存了大量粮食”与空后“消耗所有粮食”形成对立关系,选C instead of. 

因果关系  

常用的标志词和短语有:because,for,since,as,thus,hence,therefore,so,so…that,such…that,in order that,consequently,accordingly,due to,thanks to,in response to,on account of,because of,considering that,seeing that,in that,now that,lest,as a result,for this reason等。

2004年完型第34题:
More families consist of one parent households or two working parents, ___, children are likely to have less supervision at home.
[A]contrarily  [B]consequently  [C]similarly  [D]simultaneously
答案:B
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“更多的家庭是单亲家庭或双工家庭”与空后“孩子在家很少受到监管”之间是因果关系,故所B consequently.

并列关系  

常用的标志词和短语有:and,or,neither…nor,either…or,not only…but also,likewise,similarly,equally,in the same way,that is to say,as well as,same…as等。

2004年完型第25题:
Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in response to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, ___ as a rejection of middle-class values.
[A]or  [B]but rather  [C]but  [D]or else
答案:A
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“没有成功提升社会经济地位”与空后“排斥中产阶级的价值观”都可能是“犯罪”的原因,故空前和空后之间是并列关系,选A or.

总分关系  

常用的标志词和短语有:such as,for example,for instance, to illustrate,as an illustration,to take an example,more specifically等。

2001年完型第31题:
The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases ___ the trial of Rosemary West.
[A]as to  [B]for instance  [C]in particular  [D]such as
答案:D
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“prominent cases”与空后“the trial of Rosemary West”是包含的关系,总体与部分的关系,可以选for instance和such as,但for instance后面不能直接加名词,such as后要直接加名词,故选D such as.

递进关系

常用的标志词和短语有:then,besides,additionally,in addition,furthermore,moreover,what is more等。

1994年完型第46题:
Too often, careless use of words prevents a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener which interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down.

___, inaccurate or indefinite words may make it difficult for the listener to understand the message which is being transmitted to him.
[A]Moreover  [B]However  [C]Preliminarily  [D]Unexpectedly
答案:A
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。此空位于段首,需要考虑本段与上一段的逻辑关系,上一段提到“careless use of words”给交谈带来的障碍,空后则提到“inaccurate or indefinite words”理解信息造成的困难。前后是递进关系,故选择A moreover.

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